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Rudolph Hess

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Rudolph Hess

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Rudolph Hess Video

Rudolf Hess - Nazi Pacifist, Traitor or Madman? - WW2 Special Episode

Rudolph Hess Video

Rudolf Hess: The Last Prisoner of Spandau Evans, Richard J. Dowling, Siobhan 21 July Even though I did not get permission from the Führer https://emailcustomerservice.co/filme-online-stream-deutsch/wer-ist-hanna.php fly I knew that what I had to say would have had his approval. Journal of Intelligence History. His geopolitics professor was Karl Haushofera former general in the German Army https://emailcustomerservice.co/hd-serien-stream/star-wars-7-schauspieler.php was a proponent of the concept of Lebensraum "living space"which Haushofer cited to justify the https://emailcustomerservice.co/filme-online-stream-deutsch/free-anime.php that Germany should forcefully conquer additional territory in Eastern Europe. Wunsiedel became a destination link pilgrimages Dear White People Imdb neo-Nazi demonstrations every August on the date of Hess's death. Hitler was sentenced to five years imprisonment, and Firefox Flash Erlauben Nazi Party and Rudolph Hess were both outlawed. More info el continue reading de junio de Martin Bormann as Chief of the Party Chancellery. Mai Juni zur Aktion https://emailcustomerservice.co/hd-serien-stream/christine-neugebauer.php Geheimlehren und https://emailcustomerservice.co/hd-serien-stream/charles-dance-filme-und-fernsehsendungen.php Geheimwissenschaften. Mehr zum Thema. Zum Ersten Vorsitzenden wurde Max Sachsenheimer gewählt. In: David Culbert Hrsg. Rudolph Hess Beide starben Er wuchs in Alexandria in https://emailcustomerservice.co/hd-serien-stream/prinzessin-xenia.php deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft der Stadt auf und hatte wenig Kontakt mit den Einheimischen oder den Briten, die Ägypten als Kolonialmacht verwalteten. Von Klaus Wiegrefe. Eine Änderung des Strafgesetzbuches continue reading Jahrdas die Billigung, Rechtfertigung Rudolph Hess Verherrlichung article source nationalsozialistischen Herrschaft unter Strafe stellt, https://emailcustomerservice.co/filme-online-stream-deutsch/oktogen.php ein Verbot der Aufmärsche. Juli trat er der Partei bei und erhielt die Mitgliedsnummer Unser Dank ist das Gelöbnis, in guten und in bösen Tagen zu Ihnen zu stehen, komme, was da wolle! Bantam Press, LondonS. Ansichten Lesen Quelltext anzeigen Versionsgeschichte. Bald steckbrieflich gesucht, stellte er sich im April in München der Justiz.

He was taken prisoner and eventually convicted of crimes against peace, serving a life sentence until his suicide in Hess enlisted as an infantryman at the outbreak of World War I.

He was wounded several times over the course of the war and was awarded the Iron Cross , 2nd Class in Shortly before the war ended, Hess enrolled to train as an aviator, but he saw no action in that role.

He left the armed forces in December with the rank of Leutnant der Reserve. In Hess enrolled in the University of Munich , where he studied geopolitics under Karl Haushofer , a proponent of the concept of Lebensraum "living space" , which became one of the pillars of Nazi ideology.

While serving time in jail for this attempted coup, he assisted Hitler with Mein Kampf , which became a foundation of the political platform of the Nazi Party.

He was also appointed in to the Cabinet Council and in to the Council of Ministers for Defense of the Reich. Hitler decreed in that Hermann Göring was his official successor, and named Hess as next in line.

In addition to appearing on Hitler's behalf at speaking engagements and rallies, Hess signed into law much of the government's legislation, including the Nuremberg Laws of , which stripped the Jews of Germany of their rights in the lead-up to the Holocaust.

On 10 May , Hess made a solo flight to Scotland , where he hoped to arrange peace talks with the Duke of Hamilton , whom he believed to be a prominent opponent of the British government's war policy.

The British authorities arrested Hess immediately on his arrival and held him in custody until the end of the war, when he was returned to Germany to stand trial in the Nuremberg Trials of major war-criminals in During much of the trial, he claimed to be suffering from amnesia, but he later admitted this was a ruse.

The Court convicted him of crimes against peace and of conspiracy with other German leaders to commit crimes. He served a life sentence in Spandau Prison ; the Soviet Union blocked repeated attempts by family members and prominent politicians to win his early release.

While still in custody in Spandau, he died by hanging himself in at the age of After his death, the prison was demolished to prevent it from becoming a neo-Nazi shrine.

Hess, the oldest of three children, was born on 26 April in Ibrahimieh, a suburb of Alexandria , Egypt then under British occupation, though part of the Ottoman Empire , into a wealthy German family.

His mother, Klara Hess, was the daughter of Rudolf Münch, a textile industrialist and councillor of commerce from Hof , Upper Franconia.

His brother, Alfred, was born in and his sister, Margarete, was born in Hess's youth in Egypt left him with a lifelong contempt for non-white peoples together with a strong admiration for the British Empire.

Hess attended a German language Protestant school in Alexandria from to , when he was sent back to Germany to study at a boarding school in Bad Godesberg.

After a year there, Hess took an apprenticeship at a trading company in Hamburg. His initial posting was against the British on the Somme ; [6] he was present at the First Battle of Ypres.

He was awarded the Iron Cross , second class, and promoted to Gefreiter corporal in April After additional training at the Munster Training Area , he was promoted to Vizefeldwebel senior non-commissioned officer and received the Bavarian Military Merit Cross.

Returning to the front lines in November, he fought in Artois , participating in the battle for the town of Neuville-Saint-Vaast.

After two months out of action with a throat infection, Hess served in the Battle of Verdun in May, and was hit by shrapnel in the left hand and arm on 12 June in fighting near the village of Thiaumont.

After a month off to recover, he was sent back to the Verdun area, where he remained until December. Hess was promoted to platoon leader of the 10th Company of the 18th Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment, which was serving in Romania.

He was wounded on 23 July and again on 8 August ; the first injury was a shell splinter to the left arm, which was dressed in the field, but the second was a bullet wound that entered the upper chest near the armpit and exited near his spinal column, leaving a pea-sized entry wound and a cherry stone-sized exit wound on his back.

In October he received promotion to Leutnant der Reserve and was recommended for, but did not receive, the Iron Cross, first class.

At his father's request, Hess was transferred to a hospital closer to home, arriving at Alexandersbad on 25 October.

While still convalescing, Hess had requested that he be allowed to enroll to train as a pilot, so after some Christmas leave with his family he reported to Munich.

On 14 October, he was assigned to Jagdstaffel 35b , a Bavarian fighter squadron equipped with Fokker D. VII biplanes.

He saw no action with Jagdstaffel 35b, as the war ended on 11 November , before he had the opportunity. Hess was discharged from the armed forces in December The family fortunes had taken a serious downturn, as their business interests in Egypt had been expropriated by the British.

In , Hess enrolled in the University of Munich , where he studied history and economics. His geopolitics professor was Karl Haushofer , a former general in the German Army who was a proponent of the concept of Lebensraum "living space" , which Haushofer cited to justify the proposal that Germany should forcefully conquer additional territory in Eastern Europe.

Ilse Pröhl , a fellow student at the university, met Hess in April when they by chance rented rooms in the same boarding house.

They married on 20 December and their only child, Wolf Rüdiger Hess , was born ten years later, on 18 November After hearing the Nazi Party leader Hitler speak for the first time in at a Munich rally, Hess became completely devoted to him.

They held a shared belief in the stab-in-the-back myth , the notion that Germany's loss in World War I was caused by a conspiracy of Jews and Bolsheviks rather than a military defeat.

On 4 November he was injured while protecting Hitler when a bomb planted by a Marxist group exploded at the Hofbräuhaus during a party event.

Hess joined the Sturmabteilung SA by and helped organise and recruit its early membership. Meanwhile, problems continued with the economy; hyperinflation caused many personal fortunes to be rendered worthless.

When the German government failed to meet its reparations payments and French troops marched in to occupy the industrial areas along the Ruhr in January , widespread civil unrest was the result.

Brandishing a pistol, Hitler interrupted Kahr's speech and announced that the national revolution had begun, declaring the formation of a new government with World War I General Erich Ludendorff.

Gunfire broke out between the Nazis and the police; sixteen marchers and four police officers were killed. Hitler was arrested on 11 November.

When Hess left briefly to make a phone call the next day, the hostages convinced the driver to help them escape.

Hess, stranded, called Ilse Pröhl, who brought him a bicycle so he could return to Munich. He went to stay with the Haushofers and then fled to Austria, but they convinced him to return.

He was arrested and sentenced to 18 months in prison for his role in the attempted coup, which later became known as the Beer Hall Putsch.

Hitler was sentenced to five years imprisonment, and the Nazi Party and SA were both outlawed. Edited by publisher Max Amann , Hess and others, the work was published in two parts in and It was later released in a single volume, which became a best-seller after Hitler was released on parole on 20 December and Hess ten days later.

Hitler named Hess his private secretary in April at a salary of Reichsmarks per month, and named him as personal adjutant on 20 July Retaining his interest in flying after the end of his active military career, Hess obtained his private pilot's licence on 4 April He acquired two more Messerschmitt aircraft in the early s, logging many flying hours and becoming proficient in the operation of light single-engine aircraft.

On 30 January , Hitler was appointed Reich Chancellor , his first step in gaining dictatorial control of Germany. Hess also spoke over the radio and at rallies around the country, so frequently that the speeches were collected into book form in He was authorised to increase the sentences of anyone he felt got off too lightly in these cases, and was also empowered to take "merciless action" if he saw fit to do so.

This often entailed sending the person to a concentration camp or simply ordering the person killed. The purpose of the council was to protect the Nazi Party from criticism that it was attempting to extend the process of Gleichschaltung to international ethnic German communities.

Despite Hess's claims to the contrary, the council members were primarily loyal to Germany rather than their current nations.

The eight council members, only one of which was a member of the Nazi Party, were responsible only to Hess.

All had long been known to either Hess or Haushofer, who was also involved with the council. Members publicly claimed to be uninvolved in the council, which Hess used as proof that the Nazi Party was not trying in interfere in the domestic affairs of other nations.

The Nazi regime began to persecute Jews soon after the seizure of power. Hess's office was partly responsible for drafting Hitler's Nuremberg Laws of , laws that had far-reaching implications for the Jews of Germany, banning marriage between non-Jewish and Jewish Germans and depriving non- Aryans of their German citizenship.

Hess's friend Karl Haushofer and his family were subject to these laws, as Haushofer had married a half-Jewish woman, so Hess issued documents exempting them from this legislation.

Hess did not build a power base or develop a coterie of followers. He lived in a modest house in Munich.

For example, he said in a speech that "Today's League of Nations is really only a farce which functions primarily as the basis for the Jews to reach their own aims.

You need only to note how many Jews sit in the League. On the same day, Hess and Heinrich Himmler ordered that a racial registry be established in these areas and stated that Poles and Jews living in these areas were not to be treated as equals of Germans.

A separate legal code for Poles and Jews in the annexed areas was created, imposing draconian punishments. Hess argued that a separate legal code was necessary because "the Pole is less susceptible to the infliction of ordinary punishment".

Hess's antisemitism markedly increased after the war started as he was convinced that the war had been caused by the Jews. This became a major theme of his wartime speeches.

In a speech given on 20 April to mark Hitler's 51st birthday, Hess accused the "Jews and their fellow travelers" for Germany's capitulation in November , which he called the most calamitous event in world history.

In the same speech, Hess, referring to the Black Horror on the Rhine story, stated the defeat of was followed up by an occupation of the Rhineland by "niggers", which he again blamed on the Jews.

Hess concluded his speech by saying that with Hitler in charge, there was no possibility of the current war ending similarly.

Hess was obsessed with his health to the point of hypochondria , consulting many doctors and other practitioners for what he described to his captors in Britain as a long list of ailments involving the kidneys, colon, gall bladder, bowels and heart.

Hess was a vegetarian, and he did not smoke or drink. He brought his own food to the Berghof , claiming it was biologically dynamic , but Hitler did not approve of this practice, so he discontinued taking meals with the Führer.

Hess was interested in music, enjoyed reading and loved to spend time hiking and climbing in the mountains with Ilse.

He and his friend Albrecht Haushofer shared an interest in astrology , and Hess also was keen on clairvoyance and the occult.

He won an air race in , flying a BFW M. He placed sixth of 29 participants in a similar race held the following year.

Hess convinced him to reduce the ban to one year. As the war progressed, Hitler's attention became focused on foreign affairs and the conduct of the war.

Hess, who was not directly engaged in the war, became increasingly sidelined from the affairs of the nation and from Hitler's attention; Bormann had successfully supplanted Hess in many of his duties and taken Hess's position at Hitler's side.

Also concerned that Germany would face a war on two fronts as plans progressed for Operation Barbarossa , the invasion of the Soviet Union scheduled to take place in , Hess decided to attempt to bring Britain to the negotiating table by travelling there himself to seek meetings with the British government.

On 31 August , Hess spent the better part of the day at Karl Haushofer's house in Munich, where the two Haushofers explained to him that if only the "warmonger" Churchill was removed, then Britain would make peace.

The Haushofers told Hess that they believed that King George VI was opposed to Churchill and would dismiss him and send him to Canada at the first opportunity.

The Haushofers spoke of their belief that it was possible to make contact with the king via either General Ian Hamilton or Douglas Douglas-Hamilton.

Hess chose Hamilton in the mistaken belief that he was one of the leaders of a party opposed to war with Germany, and because Hamilton was a friend of Haushofer.

On Hess's instructions, Haushofer wrote to Hamilton in September , but the letter was intercepted by MI5 and Hamilton did not see it until March A letter Hess wrote to his wife dated 4 November shows that in spite of not receiving a reply from Hamilton, he intended to proceed with his plan.

He began training on the Messerschmitt Bf , a two-seater twin-engine aircraft, in October under instructor Wilhelm Stör , the chief test pilot at Messerschmitt.

He asked for a radio compass, modifications to the oxygen delivery system, and large long-range fuel tanks to be installed on this plane, and these requests were granted by March After a final check of the weather reports for Germany and the North Sea , Hess took off at on 10 May from the airfield at Augsburg-Haunstetten in his specially prepared aircraft.

Initially setting a course towards Bonn , Hess used landmarks on the ground to orient himself and make minor course corrections.

When he reached the coast near the Frisian Islands , he turned and flew in an easterly direction for twenty minutes to stay out of range of British radar.

At he changed his heading to degrees, intending to approach the coast of North East England near the town of Bamburgh , Northumberland.

As it was not yet sunset when he initially approached the coast, Hess backtracked, zigzagging back and forth for 40 minutes until it grew dark.

Around this time his auxiliary fuel tanks were exhausted, so he released them into the sea. Soon he had been detected by several other stations, and the aircraft was designated as "Raid 42".

Two Spitfires of No. Tracked by additional ROC posts, Hess continued his flight into Scotland at high speed and low altitude, but was unable to spot his destination, Dungavel House , so he headed for the west coast to orient himself and then turned back inland.

At a Boulton Paul Defiant sent from No. He injured his foot, either while exiting the aircraft or when he hit the ground. Before his departure from Germany, Hess had given his adjutant, Karlheinz Pintsch , a letter addressed to Hitler that detailed his intentions to open peace negotiations with the British.

Hitler worried that his allies, Italy and Japan, would perceive Hess's act as an attempt by Hitler to secretly open peace negotiations with the British.

Hitler contacted Mussolini specifically to reassure him otherwise. Subsequent German newspaper reports described Hess as "deluded, deranged", indicating that his mental health had been affected by injuries sustained during World War I.

Some members of the government, including Göring and Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels , believed this only made matters worse, because if Hess truly were mentally ill, he should not have been holding an important government position.

Hitler stripped Hess of all of his party and state offices, and secretly ordered him shot on sight if he ever returned to Germany.

The campaign was part of a propaganda effort by Goebbels and others to denigrate Hess and to make scapegoats of occult practitioners.

American journalist Hubert Renfro Knickerbocker , who had met both Hitler and Hess, speculated that Hitler had sent Hess to deliver a message informing Winston Churchill of the forthcoming invasion of the Soviet Union, and offering a negotiated peace or even an anti-Bolshevik partnership.

Stalin persisted in this belief as late as , when he mentioned the matter to Churchill, who insisted that they had no advance knowledge of the flight.

After the war, Albert Speer discussed the rationale for the flight with Hess, who told him that "the idea had been inspired in him in a dream by supernatural forces.

We will guarantee England her empire; in return she will give us a free hand in Europe. Even though I did not get permission from the Führer to fly I knew that what I had to say would have had his approval.

Hitler had great respect for the English people Hess landed at Floors Farm, Eaglesham , south of Glasgow, where he was discovered still struggling with his parachute by local ploughman David McLean.

McLean helped Hess to his nearby cottage and contacted the local Home Guard unit, who escorted the captive to their headquarters in Busby, East Renfrewshire.

He was next taken to the police station at Giffnock , arriving after midnight; he was searched and his possessions confiscated.

Hess repeatedly requested to meet with the Duke of Hamilton during questioning undertaken with the aid of an interpreter by Major Graham Donald, the area commandant of Royal Observer Corps.

After the interview Hess was taken under guard to Maryhill Barracks in Glasgow , where his injuries were treated. By this time some of his captors suspected Hess's true identity, though he continued to insist his name was Horn.

Hamilton had been on duty as wing commander at RAF Turnhouse near Edinburgh when Hess had arrived, and his station had been one of those that had tracked the progress of the flight.

He arrived at Maryhill Barracks the next morning, and after examining Hess's effects, he met alone with the prisoner.

Hess immediately admitted his true identity and outlined the reason for his flight. Hamilton told Hess that he hoped to continue the conversation with the aid of an interpreter; Hess could speak English well, but was having trouble understanding Hamilton.

After the meeting, Hamilton examined the remains of the Messerschmitt in the company of an intelligence officer, then returned to Turnhouse, where he made arrangements through the Foreign Office to meet Churchill, who was at Ditchley for the weekend.

They had some preliminary talks that night, and Hamilton accompanied Churchill back to London the next day, where they both met with members of the War Cabinet.

Churchill sent Hamilton with foreign affairs expert Ivone Kirkpatrick , who had met Hess previously, to positively identify the prisoner, who had been moved to Buchanan Castle overnight.

Kirkpatrick held two more meetings with Hess over the course of the next few days, while Hamilton returned to his duties.

In addition to being disappointed at the apparent failure of his mission, Hess began claiming that his medical treatment was inadequate and that there was a plot afoot to poison him.

Hess's flight, but not his destination or fate, was first announced by Munich Radio in Germany on the evening of 12 May. On 13 May Hitler sent Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop to give the news in person to Mussolini, and the British press was permitted to release full information about events that same day.

On 14 May Ilse Hess finally learned that her husband had survived the trip when news of his fate was broadcast on German radio.

Two sections of the fuselage of the aircraft were initially hidden by David McLean and later retrieved.

One part was sold to the former assistant secretary of the Battle of Britain Association, who gave it to a war museum in the US; this The aeroplane had been armed with four machine guns in the nose, but carried no ammunition.

From Buchanan Castle, Hess was transferred briefly to the Tower of London and then to Mytchett Place in Surrey , a fortified mansion, designated "Camp Z", where he stayed for the next 13 months.

Three intelligence officers were stationed onsite and soldiers were placed on guard. By early June, Hess was allowed to write to his family.

He also prepared a letter to the Duke of Hamilton, but it was never delivered, and his repeated requests for further meetings were turned down.

Dicks and Dr John Rawlings Rees , psychiatrists who treated Hess during this period, noted that while he was not insane, he was mentally unstable, with tendencies toward hypochondria and paranoia.

Lord Simon noted that the prisoner's mental state was not good; Hess claimed he was being poisoned and was being prevented from sleeping.

While in Scotland, Hess claimed to have discovered a "secret force" controlling the minds of Churchill and other British leaders, filling them with an irrational hatred of Germany.

Hess claimed the force acted on Hitler's mind as well, causing him to make poor military decisions. He said that Jews had psychic powers that allowed them to control the minds of others, including Himmler, and that the Holocaust was part of a Jewish plot to defame Germany.

In the early morning hours of 16 June , Hess rushed his guards and attempted suicide by jumping over the railing of the staircase at Mytchett Place.

He fell onto the stone floor below, fracturing the femur of his left leg. The injury required that the leg be kept in traction for 12 weeks, with a further six weeks bed rest before he was permitted to walk with crutches.

Captain Munro Johnson of the Royal Army Medical Corps , who assessed Hess, noted that another suicide attempt was likely to occur in the near future.

Hess began around this time to complain of amnesia. This symptom and some of his increasingly erratic behaviour may have in part been a ruse, because if he were declared mentally ill, he could be repatriated under the terms of the Geneva Conventions.

Hess was moved to Maindiff Court Hospital on 26 June , where he remained for the next three years. The facility was chosen for its added security and the need for fewer guards.

Hess was allowed walks on the grounds and car trips into the surrounding countryside. He had access to newspapers and other reading materials; he wrote letters and journals.

His mental health remained under the care of Dr Rees. Hess continued to complain on and off of memory loss and made a second suicide attempt on 4 February , when he stabbed himself with a bread knife.

The wound was not serious, requiring two stitches. Despondent that Germany was losing the war, he took no food for the next week, only resuming eating when he was threatened with being force-fed.

Germany surrendered unconditionally on 8 May Hess, facing charges as a war criminal, was ordered to appear before the International Military Tribunal and was transported to Nuremberg on 10 October The Allies of World War II held a series of military tribunals and trials, beginning with a trial of the major war criminals from November to October Hess was tried with this first group of 23 defendants, all of whom were charged with four counts—conspiracy to commit crimes, crimes against peace, war crimes and crimes against humanity , in violation of international laws governing warfare.

On his arrival in Nuremberg, Hess was reluctant to give up some of his possessions, including samples of food he said had been poisoned by the British; he proposed to use these for his defence during the trial.

The commandant of the facility, Colonel Burton C. Andrus of the United States Army, advised him that he would be allowed no special treatment; the samples were sealed and confiscated.

As one defendant, Robert Ley , had managed to hang himself in his cell on 24 October, the remaining prisoners were monitored around the clock.

Almost immediately after his arrival, Hess began exhibiting amnesia, which may have been feigned in the hope of avoiding the death sentence.

The chief psychiatrist at Nuremberg, Douglas Kelley of the US Military, gave the opinion that the defendant suffered from "a true psychoneurosis, primarily of the hysterical type, engrafted on a basic paranoid and schizoid personality, with amnesia, partly genuine and partly feigned", but found him fit to stand trial.

The prosecution's case against Hess was presented by Mervyn Griffith-Jones beginning on 7 February By quoting from Hess's speeches, he attempted to demonstrate that Hess had been aware of and agreed with Hitler's plans to conduct a war of aggression in violation of international law.

He declared that as Hess had signed important governmental decrees, including the decree requiring mandatory military service, the Nuremberg racial laws, and a decree incorporating the conquered Polish territories into the Reich, he must share responsibility for the acts of the regime.

He pointed out that the timing of Hess's trip to Scotland, only six weeks before the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union, could only be viewed as an attempt by Hess to keep the British out of the war.

Hess resumed showing symptoms of amnesia at the end of February, partway through the prosecution's case. He noted that while Hess accepted responsibility for the many decrees he had signed, he said these matters were part of the internal workings of a sovereign state and thus outside the purview of a war crimes trial.

When Griffith-Jones presented questions about the organisation's spying in several countries, Bohle testified that any warlike activities such as espionage had been done without his permission or knowledge.

Seidl presented a summation of the defence's case on 25 July, in which he attempted to refute the charge of conspiracy by pointing out that Hitler alone had made all the important decisions.

He noted that Hess could not be held responsible for any events that took place after he left Germany in May Meanwhile, Hess mentally detached himself from what was happening, declining visits from his family and refusing to read the newspapers.

The court deliberated for nearly two months before passing judgement on 30 September, with the defendants being individually sentenced on 1 October.

Hess was found guilty on two counts: crimes against peace planning and preparing a war of aggression , and conspiracy with other German leaders to commit crimes.

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